Taking Ownership: Defining Our Work As Sign Language Interpreters

September 16, 2015

As sign language interpreters, we understand the importance of accurately communicating concepts in our choice of words and signs. It’s time to start applying that knowledge to the way we talk about our own work.

Semantics Matter: Using Precise Language

In the field of sign language interpreting, there recently has been a shift toward doing what Napier, McGee, and Goswell (2010) have suggested – naming the actual languages involved in the interpretation. This means that the term “voicing” should not be used as it does not appropriately state what we do when we render a signed utterance into a spoken one. We interpret from ASL into English. Kelly (2004) stated that the term “voicing” is “merely a vocalization of the signs used, not a true interpretation” (p. 1). I have thought about this shift of terminology and it is befitting to better describe what we do as sign language interpreters. That trend can be seen in Interpreting Programs where classes that were once called “Sign to Voice” or “Voice to Sign” have now been renamed “ASL to English” or “English to ASL”.

[Click to view post in ASL]

If you think about it, sign language interpreters are not avatars; we do not have a script that we read off of like voice actors, we do not say exactly what the Deaf consumers with whom we work sign, we interpret. This means that we take into account the pragmatic information about the assignment, the background knowledge, culture, educational level, body language, facial expressions and what is being signed. From all of that, we then interpret what is being said, selecting words that reflect the Deaf consumer’s purpose and are idiomatic to the situation. The goal of a good ASL to English interpretation is to make it sound as natural as possible and to ensure our word choices flow with the communication context taking place.

Culturally Accurate Language Use

Somewhere along the way, sign language interpreters started to use the term “voicing” and this morphed into more than just meaning to interpret from ASL to English; now it is being used to as a synonym for talking (using audible speech) in the interpreting community. This is not how the majority of hearing culture speaks. How often have you heard someone who is not associated with the field of interpreting say, “Is it okay if we voice?” Normally, in hearing culture one may ask, “Is it okay if we talk?” It seems we forget how to speak like those outside of our field.

Sign language interpreters should be considering the hearing consumer as much as they consider the Deaf consumer. The interpretation should be such that neither of the consumers have to re-interpret what was said to make sense. Sign language interpreters should speak in idiomatic terms that sound natural to English speakers. In the hearing world the term “voice” is not typically used as a verb. It is not used to mean “speaking.” As professionals who are supposed to be bilingual and bicultural, we need to know how to make the message sound idiomatic for all parties involved. Kelly (2012) noted that the message needs to “sound or look as normal as possible to the consumers involved in the interaction” (p. 7).

At a Video Relay Service Interpreter Institute (VRSII) Interpreter Educator Symposium, Sharon Neumann Solow made a good point about the term “voicing,” explaining that to many outside of the sign language interpreting field, that term means to have an opinion included. We hear people say, “I want to voice my opinion about. . . . ” As sign language interpreters, we learn that we are not to interject our opinions into our work. When we state “I will be interpreting all communication from ASL to English and from English to ASL,” this clearly defines what we do as interpreters.

At a presentation I attended at Gallaudet, Dirksen Bauman said that he did not know he was “hearing” until he was close to twenty years old (I cannot recall the exact age he gave). For those of us who were not born into the Deaf community, we did not know the term “hearing” before we entered this field . Members of American majority culture do not use that term in their vocabulary. Carla Mathers has noted in her legal trainings that the word “hearing” should not be used when interpreting into English as it holds a completely different meaning in the courts. Again, it is important we are using terms that are used in the communities in which we work. By doing so, we are ensuring the Deaf person sounds natural and the hearing consumers do not have to reinterpret what was just said because they are not familiar with the terms used by the interpreting community.

Differences or Disservices?

If we are not using terms that are used by the hearing majority when we interpret into English, are we truly matching the speaker in a way that can be clearly understood by all? Are we doing a disservice to the Deaf consumers by making them sound “different”? If we are, are we truly bilingual? Are we truly interacting and collaborating with others in words and phrases that clearly explain the work we do?  I know that I personally can think of a few times when I used a term such as “voicing” or “hearing” and the hearing consumer asked me about it. Those terms are not native sounding in English to those outside of our field. This does a disservice to the participants. Terms are used that are unfamiliar to the hearing clients which often reflect negatively on the Deaf consumers.

We are active participants in the interpretation.  As Robert Lee stated in his StreetLeverage article, “Interpret + Person: Presentation of Self and Sign Language Interpreters”, “by not utilizing the cultural and linguistic identities we have to communicate between the Deaf and Hearing parties more naturally, we end up creating more problems.”

Over the past few years, the trend of accurately naming our work – interpreting from ASL to English – has been increasing as we work to elevate our profession. It seems that, at times, we ignore the needs of the hearing consumers and focus solely on the needs of Deaf consumers. Both are equally important and deserve messages that are delivered in ways  that are readily understood. All parties deserve an interpretation that is conveyed in a natural way.

Application

To raise the status of our profession, we should challenge each other to speak in terms that precisely state what we do. Change does not come quickly or, at times, easily. The challenge is for all of us to start owning our work and stating what we do: we interpret into English. This can be accomplished in many simple ways. When you see the sign “VOICE”, interpret it as “speaking in English” or “spoken English” or “interpreting into English” (depending on the context). When you see the sign “VOICE-OFF”, interpret it as “there will be no speaking English” or “there will be no talking” or “do not use spoken English”. The same can be said with the sign HEARING: this can be interpreted as “people who can hear”. Teachers who work in interpreting programs should encourage students to start speaking in terms that are readily understood by the hearing populations with whom they will work. Talking to other colleagues in the profession about the work and looking at it from a more objective point of view will help all of us improve our skills. The change starts with you. We interpret from ASL into English.

Questions to Consider:

  1. What resistance may there be to stating what we do?
  2. Are you willing to change how you speak?
  3. What positive impacts can you see happening based on this slight shift in how we own our work?
  4. What other terms do we (interpreters and the Deaf community) use that could be stated more clearly?

Related Posts

Sign Language Interpreters’ Attire Leaves a First Lasting Impression by Jackie Emmart, Matt Etemad-Gilbertson, Kristy Moroney,  Lena Dumont, SooJin Chu, Laura O’Callahan, and Will English.

Do Sign Langauge Interpreter Accents Compromise Comprehension? by Carol Padden

Sign Language Interpreters and the Quest for Cultural Competence by Marlene Elliott

References:

Kelly, J. E. (2004). ASL-to-English interpretation: Say it like they mean it. Alexandria, VA: RID Press.

Kelly, J. E. (2012), Interactive Interpreting: Let’s Talk. Alexandria, VA: RID Press.

Napier J., McKee, R., & Goswell, D. (2010). Sign language interpreting: Theory & practice in Australia & New Zealand. Sydney: Federation Press.

Bienvenu, MJ (2014). Bilingualism are sign language interpreters bilinguals? http://www.streetleverage.com/2015/05/bilingualism-are-sign-language-interpreters-bilinguals/

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6 Comments on "Taking Ownership: Defining Our Work As Sign Language Interpreters"

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Member
Hi Jessica! Thanks for posting! I know I have had some feedback from colleagues about terms such as voicing, S-V, V-S, and especially the term: classifier and the new term: “depicting verbs”. (Notice that the signs used for these terms heavily influence our usage…CL is well known…DV has another meaning, and CLDV?…;o) I like your proposal that all our language should sound completely natural to each party. It is also true that people are very accustomed to encountering terms of art and learning and incorporating these new terms that reflect a unique discipline or experience. It is also worth noting… Read more »
jbentleysassaman
Member
Jessica Bentley-Sassaman
Shelly Thank you for your post. I understand your comment. An easy way to remedy that would be to use a more generic term such as “sign language to English interpretation”. I know that there have been times when I have been asked what languages I interpreter and when I say ASL some people still don’t know that that means. I typically tell people “I am a sign language interpreter.” I am not trying to downgrade the ability of those to understand the terms. I am stating that the hearing culture does not use the term “voicing”. In order for… Read more »
Member
Brendan Carruthers

Hello Jessica,

Thank you for your post. I agree with your idea of changing the language. I am not yet a professional interpreter, but even as a student, I have noticed that use of the term “cultural mediators” doesn’t always include appropriate use of the English language. I would hazard that there are a number of other areas in our field where your thoughts could be applied. As I continue my studies I will embrace your suggestion, and also seek other ways where this concept can be used.

Again, thank you.

Brendan Carruthers

jbentleysassaman
Member
Jessica Bentley-Sassaman

Brendan
Thank you for your comment and I am glad that you can see how as interpreters we do not always culturally mediate to meet the needs of the English speaking clients. I hope your studies go well and you embrace the proposed language for true cultural mediation for all.

Jessica

Member
Helen Badoyannis, Ph.D.
Hi Jessica, Thank you for such a thought provoking posting. I would hope that most interpreters and interpreters-in-training, such as myself, would digest what you have shared and direct ourselves towards becoming more accurate in how we present ourselves as interpreters. We should be mindful of how we are regarded as the professional field of interpreting continues to grow. More importantly, we need to be mindful on how this impacts the perception of Deaf individuals. I think it is very appropriate to consider all the connotations that are attached to terms like “voicing”, “talking”, “hearing”, “interpreting”, and “translating” and to… Read more »
jbentleysassaman
Member
Jessica Bentley-Sassaman
Helen Thank you for your insightful comments. I do agree that we can use “sign language” as a label to be more inclusive. I agree that we need to focus on the process of interpreting and use terms that do not have any negative connotations to them and terms that are used by the mainstream population. Interpreter training programs who use the terms “voicing” the students then learn that this term is “normal” and think it is mainstream and acceptable. They then use it in their work, which perpetuates the use of non-culturally mediated terms into the mainstream American culture.… Read more »

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